Top 10 Common Types of Foot Pain
Plantar Fasciitis - Best Tools To Treat Plantar Fasciitis
The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity.It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot, a tight Achilles tendon, and a lifestyle that involves little exercise.While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the condition.Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring.Since inflammation plays either a lesser or no role, a review proposed it be renamed plantar fasciosis. The diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms; ultrasound is sometimes useful. Other conditions with similar symptoms include osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, heel pad syndrome, and reactive arthritis.
Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve with time and conservative methods of treatment. For the first few weeks, those affected are usually advised to rest, change their activities, take pain medications, and stretch.If this is not sufficient, physiotherapy, orthotics, splinting, or steroid injections may be options.If these measures are not effective, extracorporeal shockwave therapy or surgery may be tried.
Between 4% and 7% of the general population has heel pain at any given time: about 80% of these are due to plantar fasciitis. Approximately 10% of people have the disorder at some point during their life. It becomes more common with age. It is unclear if one sex is more affected than the other.
Bunion (Hallux Valgus) - Best Tools To Treat Bunion
A bunion is a knobby bump on the side of the foot, just below the big toe joint. Bunions can vary in size and are the result of the big toe shifting out of position over time and pressing against the second toe, which results in abnormal stress on the big toe joint and surrounding ligaments.
Bunion pain can flare up on occasion and may be accompanied by bursitis (an inflamed pocket of fluid) over the bunion. This may cause redness and swelling, in addition to pain. Bunions can also occur on the pinkie toe side of the foot. For ideas on how to deal with bunion pain, read about five tips for soothing bunion pain.
Lesser toe deformities
The big toe has only one interphalangeal joint, but the lesser toes have two. The most common types of deformitieswhich affect the lesser toes are covered below. Claw toe. A claw toe is caused by one of the tendons in the foot contracting.
Lesser toe deformities are caused by alterations in normal anatomy that create an imbalance between the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Causes include improper shoe wear, trauma, genetics, inflammatory arthritis, and neuromuscular and metabolic diseases. Typical deformities include mallet toe, hammer toe, claw toe, curly toe, and crossover toe. Abnormalities associated with the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints include hallux valgus of the first MTP joint and instability of the lesser MTP joints, especially the second toe. Midfoot and hindfoot deformities (eg, cavus foot, varus hindfoot, valgus hindfoot with forefoot pronation) may be present, as well. Nonsurgical management focuses on relieving pressure and correcting deformity with various appliances. Surgical management is reserved for patients who fail nonsurgical treatment. Options include soft-tissue correction (eg, tendon transfer) as well as bony procedures (eg, joint resection, fusion, metatarsal shortening), or a combination of techniques.
Fat pad atrophy
Fat pad atrophy can be distinguished from plantar fasciitis causing heel pain as the symptoms of fat pad atrophy are often bilateral with central heel pain. In contrast, plantarfasciitis typically causes medial heel pain in one foot.Fat pad atrophy is commonly caused by loss of the normal cushioning effect provided by the plantar fat pad. The loss of this protective adipose tissue and the surrounding collagen septae can expose the underlying delicate neurovascular structures to excess load and shear forces. In the compromised neuropathic foot often seen in people with diabetes, these excess forces can lead to break down of skin and ulceration exposing bony prominences.
Metatarsalgia （Ball of the Foot Pain）
Metatarsalgia is a painful condition that affects the ball of the foot. The metatarsals are bones that connect the toes to the ankles. It can result from overuse or high-impact sports, arthritis, and wearing inappropriate footwear, such as high-heeled shoes.
Metatarsalgia is a common overuse injury. The term describes pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. It is often thought of as a symptom of other conditions, rather than as a specific disease.
In the U.S., forefoot injuries, including metatarsalgia, are common in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. Athletes who take part in high-impact sports involving running or jumping are at high risk of forefoot injury. While track and field runners are exposed to the highest level of traumatic forces to the forefoot, many other athletes, including tennis, football, baseball, and soccer players, often have forefoot injuries. The primary symptom of metatarsalgia is pain at the end of one or more of the metatarsal bones. The pain is typically aggravated when walking or running. Athletes who participate in high-impact activities and may also have an inflammatory condition such as bursitis often have diffuse forefoot and midfoot pain. Most often, the pain comes on over a period of several months, rather than suddenly
Patients with Morton’s neuroma most often complain of a burning sensation in the forefoot and sometimes an associated clicking or catching sensation. The pathogenesis of the condition is poorly understood. The common digital nerve can be entrapped without inflammation in either the third–fourth or second–third web spaces secondary to several potential causes. Discomfort is often poorly localised by the patient, but pain may radiate to corresponding toes and there may be associated altered sensation or numbness. The pain is worsened by wearing enclosed or ill-fitting shoes and is reduced when walking bare foot.
Tendons are the cord-like structures that anchor muscles to bone. When they are over-stretched or over-used, tendonitis can occur.
Tendonitis causes pain with activity or stretching, and the affected tendon is usually painful to the touch. Recurrent tendonitis may be a sign of tendon tearing and weakening, also known as tendinosis.
Common types of tendonitis affecting the foot and ankle include:
Posterior tibial tendonitis
Corns and Calluses
Calluses are thickened areas of skin over parts of the feet where excessive amounts of pressure or friction occur. Calluses at the heel can become painful if they fissure, or split open.
Corns occur on the toes where they rub against the shoe. Sometimes the tiniest callus or corn can cause intense pain because it extends deep into the layers of the skin and presses on nerves. Corns and calluses also look similar to warts, which may also cause discomfort.
Arch Pain / Arch Strain
The term arch pain (often referred to as arch strain) refers to an inflammation and/or burning sensation at the arch of the foot.
There are many different factors that can cause arch pain. A structural imbalance or an injury to the foot can often be the direct cause. However, most frequently the cause is a common condition called plantar fasciitis. The plantar fascia is a broad band of fibrous tissue located along the bottom surface of the foot that runs from the heel to the forefoot. Excessive stretching of the plantar fascia, usually due to over-pronation (flat feet), causes plantar fasciitis. The inflammation caused by the plantar fascia being stretched away from the heel often leads to pain in the heel and arch areas. The pain is often extreme in the morning when an individual first gets out of bed or after a prolonged period of rest. If this condition is left untreated and strain on the longitudinal arch continues, a bony protrusion may develop, known as a heel spur. It is important to treat the condition promptly before it worsens.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
This is a common foot condition that can be easily treated. If you suffer from arch pain avoid high-heeled shoes whenever possible. Try to choose footwear with a reasonable heel, soft leather uppers, shock absorbing soles and removable foot insoles. When the arch pain is pronation related (flat feet), an orthotic designed with a medial heel post and proper arch support is recommended for treating the pain. This type of orthotic will control over-pronation, support the arch and provide the necessary relief.
Heel pain is a common condition in which weight bearing on the heel causes extreme discomfort.
There are two different categories of heel pain. The first is caused by over-use repetitive stress which refers to a soreness resulting from too much impact on a specific area of the foot. This condition, often referred to as “heel pain syndrome,” can be caused by shoes with heels that are too low, a thinned out fat pad in the heel area, or from a sudden increase in activity. Plantar fasciitis, a very common diagnosis of heel pain, is usually caused from a biomechancial problem, such as over-pronation (flat feet). The plantar fascia is a broad band of fibrous tissue that runs along the bottom surface of the foot, from the heel through the midfoot and into the forefoot. Over-pronation can cause the plantar fascia to be excessively stretched and inflamed, resulting in pain in the heel and arch areas of the foot. Often the pain will be most intense first thing in the morning or after a prolonged period of rest. The pain will gradually subside as the day progresses.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
To properly treat heel pain, you must absorb shock, provide cushioning and elevate the heel to transfer pressure. This can be accomplished with a heel cup, visco heel cradle, or an orthotic designed with materials that will absorb shock and shear forces. When the condition is pronation related (usually plantar fasciitis), an orthotic with medial posting and good arch support will control the pronation and prevent the inflammation of the plantar fascia. Footwear selection is also an important criteria when treating heel pain. Shoes with a firm heel counter, good arch support, and appropriate heel height are the ideal choice.